The diamond can certainly be defined as the gem among gems. It is the most sought after stone and the most used in the production of jewelry all over the world.
The etymology of its name, finds reference in the indomitable stone, the ancients did not know material that was able to affect it and work it. In ancient times it was almost religiously guarded by the spouses, since it was attributed the faculty of increasing and making love more lasting. Diamond deposits are widespread all over the world but the regions considered prevalent above all in the production of this wonderful gem are India and southern Africa.
The diamond is chemically composed of pure carbon and is by far the hardest gem (10 on the Mohs scale) and with the highest refractive index.
Of the entire diamond production it must be considered that half of the quantity extracted is not suitable for its characteristics for jewelry and is therefore used in the technical sector, moreover, it is estimated that proceeding with the processing of raw stone undergoes a weight loss of about 60%. As a result, only 20% of rough diamond production is marketed as a gem.
Jewelery professionals use a systematic way to evaluate and discuss these factors. Otherwise, there would be no way to evaluate and discuss the qualities of each individual diamond. Diamond professionals use the grading system developed by GIA in the 1950s, which established the use of four important factors to describe and classify diamonds: clarity, color, cut and carat weight.
As shown, the color of the diamond is established by assigning it a letter ranging from D to Z.
Diamonds are available in many colors and the specimens that in the color scale exceed the letter Z are defined as fancy, in certain cases they have a higher value even than the colorless diamond. Diamonds ranging from colorless (D) to light yellow (Z) fall within the normal range of colors. Within that range, colorless diamonds are the rarest, so they are the most valuable. To determine with certainty the exact color, diamonds are graded by color under controlled conditions by comparing them with brilliant cut diamonds of a known color, called masterstones (sample diamonds).
Few things in nature are absolutely perfect. This is as true for diamonds as it is for anything else. Diamonds have internal characteristics, called inclusions. Purity is the relative absence of inclusions and stains.
Diamonds classified Flawless ("perfect" ) have no inclusions or imperfections visible when examined at 10x magnification (10X).
VVS classified diamonds have very small inclusions that are very difficult to detect when examined at 10x magnification (10X).
VS graded diamonds have very small inclusions that are difficult to spot
examined at 10x magnification (10X).
SI-rated diamonds have minute inclusions visible at 10X magnification, but not yet visible to the naked eye when viewed through the crown.
Diamonds classified I (pique) have minute inclusions visible to the naked eye when viewed through the crown.
Sometimes, one factor makes more difference to the degree of clarity than the others. But it's not always the same.
The relative importance of each factor varies from diamond to diamond.
For example, an inclusion on the side of a stone has less impact on perceived purity than an inclusion of the same size located directly in the center of the front table.
In this case, the location is probably the determining factor.
When a diamond interacts with light, every angle and every facet affects the amount of light returned to the eye. This is what gives it its appearance.
The proportions of a diamond determine the performance of light when it enters it.
Diamonds with different proportions and good polishing give more light and are bright, colorful and sparkling.
As a general rule, the higher the cut grade, the brighter the diamond.
The term "cut" can also describe the shape of a worked diamond.
Shapes other than the standard round brilliant are called fancy cuts.
This aspect is highlighted by the Rapaport price list which is divided into two: one in reference to all diamonds that have a brilliant cut (Rapaport round) and the second, in reference to all cuts other than brilliant and which are defined as fantasy ( Rapaport pear).
If you would like more details on diamond cuts click here
Even people who have never bought a diamond are used to the idea that weight and price are related. They understand that a larger diamond is probably more valuable than a smaller one. But there are two factors that often surprise people when they start to approach the fascinating world of diamonds.
The first is the accuracy with which diamonds are weighed. The weights of diamonds are expressed in metric carats, abbreviated to "ct". A metric carat is two tenths (0.2) of a gram.
The metric carat is divided into 100 points. A point is one hundredth of a carat.
A diamond weighing 0.80 carats is said to weigh "eighty points".
The relationship between rarity, weight and value can be surprising, because a 1-carat diamond is worth, say, $ 10,000, while a 2-carat diamond of similar quality could be worth $ 50,000.
It really is a simple concept: large diamonds are rarer than small diamonds.
So a larger stone doesn't just cost more, it costs more per carat. A 1-carat diamond weighs the same as four 0.25-carat diamonds. But even if all other quality factors are the same, the largest diamond is worth much more than the sum of the four smallest diamonds.